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Wednesday, 14 November 2018

Lonely Days by Bayo Adebowale

Lonely Days by Bayo Adebowale.

                                           Lonely Days by Bayo Adebowale.
Lonely Days is a prose work written by Bayo Adebowale. It is a story that exposes the bad customs and traditional rites widows are forced to go through in Africa.
The author exposes this evil tradition by telling us the story of Yaremi and other widows of Kufi village who go through harrowing and painful experiences at the death of their spouse.
Subject Matter : The major issue of discourse is death and the author particularly looks at widowhood in Africa focusing on the fate or sufferings of widows who are accused of being the ones responsible for their husbands death.
The novelist also sheds light on the loneliness and neglect that widows in Africa have to battle with as they are abandoned by family members and their children.

Author: Bayo Adebowale.                  
Country: Nigeria.
Language: English.                          
First Published: 2006
ISBN: 978-978-029-746-6
Pages: 141 (Spectrum Edition)          
Chapters: 14
Genre: Prose.

1) ABOUT AUTHOR
Bayo Adebowale (born 6 June, 1944) is a Nigerian poet, prolific writer, novelist, professor, critic, librarian and founder of the African Heritage Library and Cultural Centre, Adeyipo, Ibadan Oyo State.

Early life
He was born on 6 June 1944 in Ibadan, the capital of Oyo State, southwestern Nigeria into the family of Akangbe Adebowale, who was a farmer. He was educated at Secondary Modern School at Ibadan, where he obtained the West African School Certificate in 1958 before he proceeded to St Peter’s Teacher College where he received the Grade III certificate in education in 1961, the same year he was admitted into Baptist College in Ede for a Grade II Teacher certificate. On October 1971, he proceeded to the University of Ibadan, where he obtained a Bachelor of Arts (B. A) degree in English Language in 1974 and completed the compulsory National Youth Service Corps in 1975, the same year he joined the services of the Western State Public Service Commission as education officer before he later became an English instructor at Government Trade Centre, Oyo State. Three years later (1978), he obtained a master's degree in English language, the same year he joined the Oyo State College of Education as Lecturer I and was later transferred to the Polytechnic of Ibadan, where he rose to the position of Deputy Rector between 1999 and 2003 having obtained a doctorate degree (Ph. D) in Literature in English from the University of Ilorin in 1997.

2)STUDY GUIDE

Setting
Though set in the rural rustic village of Kufi, Lonely Days mirrors the plight of widows in the larger Nigerian society and indeed in Africa as a whole. Much of the story revolves around Yaremi, the novel’s protagonist.

Plot
The novel opens with Yaremi recalling the events leading to the death of her husband, Ajumobi and her predicament thereafter. While mourning Ajumobi’s death, Yaremi suffered great humiliation from extended family who strongly believed that she was responsible for her husband’s death. She became very lonely, not only as a result of Ajumobi’s death, but also because her two daughters, Segi and Wura, who would have kept her company, had been married off. Her only son, Alani who lived in the city had become so urbanised that he hardly visited Kufi. Yaremi had to fend for herself and take up manly roles. For instance, she had to farm all by herself and clear the bushes around her home in addition to her main job of selling taffeta products.

Yaremi was a very strong and hardworking woman. She got little help and some company from Woye, her grandson who lived with her. Yaremi enjoyed recounting her interesting childhood experiences to Woye in the form of stories while working on taffeta clothes. Through these stories, Woye learnt how to count numbers and also learnt the importance of hardwork and resilience.

Besides Yaremi, there were three other widows in Kufi who had gone through similar ordeals. They often empathised and shared their widowhood experiences with one another whenever they met on the narrow road leading to the village river. One of them was Dedewe who was tortured and humiliated by her husband’s relatives. Dedewe was made to sit alone by her husband’s corpse in a dark room and also compelled to own up to offences she never committed. Another widow, Fayoyin suffered similar fate. Her hair was badly shaved and she was forced to lick libation. The third widow, Radeke was also accused of killing her husband. These accusations stem from the people’s superstitious belief that no death was natural; hence, a husband’s death must have been caused by his wife.

Through Yaremi’s reminiscences, the author introduces his readers to Ajumobi. Ajumobi was a brave and powerful hunter who enjoyed boasting of his prowess as a successful hunter. In his lifetime, he was firm and had absolute control of his household. Ajumobi was a happy and lively man. Like most men in Kufi, he liked drinking palmwine in the company of friends. He was quite ambitious. Prior to his death, he planned to renovate his house and even take a second wife. Yaremi loved her husband greatly and in spite of their many squabbles in his lifetime, she missed his affection and companionship.

Yaremi was economically self-reliant and assertive. Most men in Kufi resented her as they expected their women to always play second fiddle or be in a subordinate position to them. Like other widows in Kufi, Yaremi was expected to remarry by all means. Radeke, Fayoyin and Dedewe had gone through the cap picking ceremony where they chose new men to replace their deceased husbands.
Yaremi resisted all pressure and chose to remain unmarried. She demonstrated her resolve by turning down proposals from three suitors and refusing to pick up a cap at the cap picking ceremony organised to facilitate her remarriage. As a result, the village elders threatened to confiscate her husband’s property and banish her from the village. The story ends with Yaremi taking off her widowhood garment and expressing a renewed determination to remain in Kufi in spite of all odds.

Themes
i.)  Widowhood or The plight of widows:

The theme of widowhood is the novel’s central theme. The widows in Lonely Days were subjected to pain and humiliation. The widowhood experiences of Yaremi, Dedewe, Fayoyin and Radeke are a miscrosm of the plight of widows in the larger Nigerian society and in the African continent as a whole. The author condemns widow inheritance, forced remarriage and other cultural practices that subject widows to pain and humiliation.

ii.) Loneliness:

Another important theme that runs through the novel is the theme of loneliness. Yaremi was very lonely and had to do most things by herself. For instance, she had to appeal to Uncle Deyo, Ajumobi’s friend to assist in mending her leaking roof and rebuilding the walls of her house.

iii.) Humiliation:

Yaremi suffered humiliation from extended relations who accused her of killing her husband. Dedewe, Fayoyin and Radeke also suffered humiliation. For instance, Dedewe was made to sit in a dark room by her husband’s corpse while Fayoyin’s hair was badly shaved.  Hardwork or Diligence: The theme of diligence is expressed by Yaremi’s industrious character. The author uses several anecdotes to encourage hardwork.

iv) Male chauvinism:

This is a belief or notion usually held by men that women are inferior to them. Yaremi suffered resentment from most men in Kufi because of her self-reliant and assertive status.

v.) Survival, Resilience and Determination:

Yaremi had the will and the determination to survive in spite of her predicament as a widow. She worked very hard to earn a decent living and refused to be cowed into accepting traditional injunctions of widow inheritance and remarriage set by her society.

vi.) Superstitions:

The novel explains how superstitious beliefs impact on people’s behaviour. For instance, wives were accused of killing their husbands because of the belief that someone had to be responsible for every death. They also suspected feathered creatures like birds as they were usually linked to witchcraft.

vii.) Death:

In Kufi, the people believed that there were good and bad deaths. Yaremi consoled herself with the notion that Ajumobi died a good death. It was also believed that the dead people watch over the living. This explains Yaremi’s many monologues addressed to her late husband, Ajumobi.

Other books by the author(Lonely Days by Bayo Adebowale) are: Out Of His Mind and The Ambitious Village Boy.


SETTING:

The novel’s location is Kufi, an imaginary village in the South-Western part of Nigeria. The author uses Kufi to represent and illustrate the larger society’s treatment of widows.

NARRATIVE TECHNIQUES: lonely days by bayo adebowale

The author uses mainly the third person narrative. However, on few occasions the author let Yaremi tell her own story.

CHARACTERS

The characters in this novel are grouped into major and minor characters.



Major characters in lonely days by bayo adebowale



1. Yaremi

She is the protagonist of the novel. Yaremi is a brave, confident, generous, self empowered and an industrious woman. She is the mother of Segi, Wura and Alani. The death of her husband made her a victim of marginalization, deprivation and victimization.



2. Ajumobi

He was a brave hunter. Ajumobi was Yaremi's late husband and the father of Segi, Wura and Alani. He was "well to do" in his lifetime. He owned a cocoa farm, trees, banana, kolanut trees and fruiting palm trees. Ajumobi was a loving husband who stuttered when he was angry.



3. Woye

The son of Segi and grandson of Yaremi. He is a hardworking child and worthy companion of Yaremi. He helps Yaremi in her taffeta business and likes listening to her stories. He is a healthy child who likes playing football. Woye insists on going to school so that he can read the letters of the alphabet like his mates.



Minor characters in lonely days by bayo adebowale



1. Segi

Yaremi's first daughter and confidant. She is the mother of Woye and the wife of Wande. She lives in Alode with her husband.



2. Alani

He is the only son of Yaremi and late Ajumobi. He lives in Ibadan where he has a booming carpentry business.



3. Uncle Deyo

He was Ajumobi's bossom friend when Ajumobi was alive. He is a responsible friend and takes his friend's family as his even after his friend's demise. He helps Yaremi with difficult chores like mending of the leaking roof of her house and rebuilding the walls of her mud house.



4. Fayoyin, Dedewe and Radeke

These are the three widows who are also marginalized and victimized like Yaremi by the customs and tradition of Kufi land.



5. Rogba

He is the village flute player. He displays his talent during the cap-picking ceremony.



6. Ayanwale

He is one of Yaremi's suitors. He tries to impress her with stories of his earthly achievement so she can pick him during the cap-picking ceremony. He is also a drummer.



7. Lanwa

Lanwa is one of Yaremi's suitors and a wealthy man (farmer) who claims kinship with Yaremi's late husband.



8. Olonade

He is one of Yaremi's suitors. He brags of making Yaremi a mother of twins once she accepts him in the cap-picking ceremony. He is also a wood carver.



9. Sokoti

He is commonly known as "Iron man". He is a husband to Wura. He is a blacksmith and does his work in Apon where he lives.



10. Wura

She is the second daughter and child of Yaremi and late Ajumobi. She lives with her husband, Sokoti, in Apon.

3) CHAPTER SUMMARY: lonely days by bayo adebowale

Chapter 1

Yaremi mourned the death of Ajumobi and tried to console herself with the fact that Ajumobi did not die a shameful death.
The mourners falsely suspected her of having killed her husband.
She became very lonely with no husband or children to keep her company.
Woye, her grandson became her only company. She told him stories of her childhood and taught him number games while making taffeta.


Chapter 2

Chapter 2 captures Yaremi’s everyday routine especially how she worked hard in the kitchen, in the forest while gathering firewood and in the dyeing yard where she produced her taffeta.
Yaremi is portrayed as a very strong, beautiful and agile woman in spite of her age.


Chapter 3

This chapter describes the narrow road leading to the village river. This road served as a meeting point for widows in Kufi.
The chapter also features stories of humiliation, torture and ill-treatment of other widows in Kufi namely Dedewe, Fayoyin and Radeke.


Chapter 4

Yaremi showed her versatility by combining different tasks. She made stitches, discarded husks of palm kernel and blew chaff off the melon seeds.
She spent her leisure time exchanging pleasantries with neighbours and telling Woye stories from her childhood days.
The importance of time management was emphasised in this chapter.
Chapter 5

Woye is portrayed as a very playful child. Yaremi taught Woye how to make scarecrow to ward off hawks.
The chapter reveals the people’s superstitious beliefs.
Chapter 5 describes events leading to the death of Ajumobi.


Chapter 6

Yaremi is portrayed as an independent woman who was no longer under the control of a man.
This chapter introduces the readers to the character of Ajumobi. Ajumobi is described as a brave and powerful hunter. He was also very ambitious.
Yaremi recalled the moments they spent together and showed how much she adored him.
Ajumobi expressed his desire for a polygamous marriage.


Chapter 7

The author describes moonlight night in Kufi.
Yaremi recalled her relationship with Ajumobi in his lifetime.
She recalled how she insulted him on some occasions and how Ajumobi beat her.
After his death, Ajumobi appeared on different occasions.
Yaremi attempted to ask Ajumobi several rhetorical questions.
Yaremi expressed her desire for Ajumobi’s affection.
Chapter 8

This chapter describes how Yaremi sold her taffeta in different markets and how she dealt with her debtors.
Woye’s ill-health worried Yaremi. She gave him special attention and made several promises. These were aimed at making him recover quickly.
Woye recovered from his illness.
Chapter 9

This chapter describes Kufi women. They were hardworking and showed so much devotion to their husbands and children. It also describes how women coped in polygamous homes.
Yaremi displayed her generousity by sharing her food with others.
Yaremi became influential and assertive. Most men in Kufi resented her for these attributes.
Ayanwale, Olonade and Lanwa proposed marriage to Yaremi.
Chapter 10

Yaremi displayed manly attributes.
She chided her suitors and turned down their marriage proposals.
Ajumobi appeared to Yaremi in her dreams assuring her of his presence and support.
Her extended family planned to organise a cap picking ceremony to facilitate her remarriage and a purification ritual to make her forget the past.
Chapter 11

Dedeke, Fayoyin and Radeke tried to talk Yaremi into remarriage.
This chapter features the cap picking ceremony.
Yaremi refused to pick a cap at the cap picking ceremony.
The villagers were angry.
Chapter 12

Yaremi suffered great resentment from the villagers as a result of her decision to remain unmarried.
She recalled her happy days with Ajumobi especially how he showered her with love, care and affection.
She considered leaving Kufi for Adeyipo, her parents’ village.
Chapter 13

Segi visited Adeyipo village. Yaremi confided in Segi and expressed her fears.
The chapter features many unanswered questions associated with a widow’s second marriage.
Woye looked forward to starting school in Olode.
Woye returned to Olode with Segi, his mother.
Chapter 14

Alani, Yareni’s son arrived from the city.
Uncle Deyo scolded him for keeping away from the village and from his father’s properties.
Uncle Deyo took Alani to Ajumobi’s cocoa plantation showing him the farm’s boundaries.
To Yaremi’s chagrin, Alani announced that he was returning to the city and was not interested in cultivating his late father’s farm.
The village elders threatened to confiscate Ajumobi’s properties and banish Yaremi completely from the village.
Yaremi resolved to remain in Kufi in spite of all odds.

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4) USE OF FIGURATIVE EXPRESSIONS: lonely days by bayo adebowale

The author’s generous use of figurative expressions is evident throughout the novel.

1. Metaphor

This is a figure of speech that equates two things that are not the same. Comparison is done without the use of “as” or “like”. In Lonely Days, the number game, for instance, has a lot of metaphors in it. Page 8 paragraph 3 reads: “Three is the dirty calabash on my mother’s wooden rack…”. See also paragraphs 4, 6, 7, and 8. You may also see paragraphs 1 to 6 of page 10. Another use of metaphoric expression is seen on page 9 paragraph 3 when Yaremi said “Work was music to us, Woye.” See also the last paragraph of Page 15 where the author directly compares life with fire by saying “Life is fire”. The slippery and narrow river road in Chapter 3 is equally metaphoric. It is directly described as the “Widows’ Road” on which widows thread with caution. The author’s description of a new wife on page 58 also contains a number of metaphors-“A new wife is a polished drum…”; she is a fresh lily…”

2. Simile

This is a figure of speech that compares two non-similar things by the use of “as” or “like”. The author uses simile to describe Yaremi’s loneliness- “Yaremi felt thoroughly abandoned, like a stone at the bottom of a lake” (page 3); “… the extended family’s mockery heaped on her like the strange showers of a January rain” (page 3). Uncle Deyo used simile in describing Alani’s long stay in the city- “You flew away, Alani, like a bird with no destination; like a stone-missile flung aimlessly to an unknown destination from the leather-strap of a catapult”. (page 135)

3. Personification

This is a figure of speech in which human attributes are given to inanimate objects. An example is seen on page 60 paragraph 1- “the moon peeped and vanished, to reappear playfully again among the woods, seducing onlookers’ souls with serene beauty…” 4. Hyperbole: An exaggerated statement not meant to be taken literally. It’s used for emphasis and comic effect. Ajumobi’s boastings in page 50 contain a lot of hyperbole.

5. Rhetorical Questions:

These are questions that do not require answers. Yaremi asked lots of rhetorical questions on page 69- “where are you now, Ajumobi?” is an example of a rhetorical question. Segi also asked rhetorical questions on pages 126 and 127 where she raised questions on remarriage.


5) IMPORTANT LITERARY DEVICES

Exposition:

Exposition is a literary device used to introduce background information about the characters, setting and events to the reader. In Lonely Days, the author explains the character of Ajumobi, the marital life of Ajumobi and Yaremi, and events leading up to the death of Ajumobi through Exposition. This exposition is presented through Yaremi’s thoughts, dialogues between Yaremi and Ajumobi as well as monologues.

Falling Action

The falling action in a work of literature is the sequence of events that follow the climax and end in the resolution. In Lonely Days the falling action occurs after Yaremi refused to pick a cap at the cap-picking ceremony: She suffered great resentment from the villagers because of her decision not to remarry. They also threatened to banish her from the village and confiscate her husband’s properties.

Rising Action

Rising action is what happens in a story leading up to the most exciting part of the story. In Lonely Days, the rising action occurs where Yaremi’s extended family planned to organise a cap picking ceremony to facilitate her remarriage and her co-widows (Fayoyin, Radeke and Dedewe) tried to persuade her to choose a husband at the cap-picking ceremony.

Climax

is the part of the story where the tension or action reaches its highest point. In Lonely Days, the climax occurs at the cap-picking ceremony when Yaremi refused to choose a suitor by picking a cap.

Resolution

Resolution is the part of the story’s plot line in which the problem of the story is resolved or worked out. It comes after the falling action and it is typically where the story ends. In Lonely Days, the resolution occurs when Yaremi resolved to remain in Kufi in spite of the village elders’ threat to confiscate her husband’s properties and banish her from the village.
6) LIKELY QUESTIONS

1. Attempt a chapter summary of Lonely Days.

2. Discuss the character and role of Yaremi in Lonely Days.

3. Discuss the following: i. Five stages of plot ii. the setting iii. the relationship between Yaremi and Ajumobi

4. Discuss the components of oral tradition in Lonely Days

5. Identify and discuss four themes in Lonely Days.

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Monday, 12 November 2018

Nigeria police academy school fees

Nigeria Police Academy School Fees and Courses

About
Nigerian police academy is a federal university established in 2013 by the federal government of Nigeria, the university is located in Kano state northern Nigeria, and has been established t train students not only in academics but insecurity. The university trains students to be police men, making Nigeria, a safer place. The university admits students irrespective of their age, religious or cultural background. Nigerian police academy has a relatively low student body compared to other federal universities in the country. The university offers bachelor's degree programs in sciences, social sciences, and management courses. We have no information about how competitive admission into this university it, but we believe it might be relatively not so competitive. Nigerian police academy has good infrastructure in place to make learning easier for students.
Dreaming of becoming a police officer is a great dream. Apart from the fact that police officers are paid handsomely, their salaries are always regular. There are hardly cases of unpaid salaries, and this is a really great thing in a country like Nigeria. Furthermore, dreaming of becoming a police officer shows that an individual has a great interest in serving the country — this a great thing expected to be seen in all Nigerians, service to the country and humanity. { Nigeria Police Academy School Fees }

When dreaming of becoming a police officer, one of the ways to go about it is attending the Nigerian Police Academy. However, a good number are holding back from attending this school because they have little or no idea about the cost of education at Nigerian Police Academy, as well as courses offered at the institution. In response to this, we put up this article, ‘Nigerian Police Academy School Fees and Courses’, to provide answers to these questions.

nigeria police academy school fees
Nigeria police academy school fees

Nigeria Police Academy School Fees and Courses

  • Fees

At the moment, there is only one Nigerian Police Academy, and this school is located in Kano, Kano State. The school was established by the federal government of Nigeria in 2003, following a proposal. The school gives its students standard education as well as police training. The students who graduated from this institution receive Bachelor’s degree. In other words, they can work in commercial organizations as well as in the Nigerian Police.
The institution admits students without regards to cultural background and religion. Interestingly, education at the school is free. Education at the school is not only free, the government also pays the students some amount of money.
  • Courses

Nigerian Police Academy runs on a very good educational curriculum. Individuals who graduate from the school can compete with the students of other universities in the country. At this school, there four faculties namely: Law, Science, Social and Management Sciences, and Humanities. Under these four faculties, there are over 20 courses.
Some courses offered at Nigerian Police Academy include: Accounting, Banking and Finance, Biochemistry, Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Economics, English Language, Forensic Science, French, Hausa, History and International Studies, Igbo, Law, Mathematics, Physics, Political Science, Psychology, Social Works, Sociology, and Yoruba. An aspirant of this allowed choosing from the courses listed.

Popular Courses

  • Accounting

Accounting is one of the most popular courses at the Nigerian Police Academy. Students who study accounting are trained to be able to monitor the flow of money in an organization, commercial and non-profit. The students will take core accounting courses all through their programme. Accounting at Nigerian Police Academy takes about 4 years to be completed.
For a student to study this course at the institution, they must have at least credit pass in at least 5 of their WAEC/NECO subjects. These 5 subjects are Mathematics, English Language, Economics and any two other social science subjects. In their UTME examination, it is mandatory for them to take English Language, Economics and any two other social science subjects.
There are a lot of Nigerian universities that offer Accounting. Some of these universities include:

1. Ambrose Alli University
2. Afe Babalola University
3. Augustine University
4. Akwa Ibom State University of Technology
5. Al-Hikmah University
6. Babcock University
7. Bayero University
8. Baze University
9. Bells University of Technology
10. University of Benin
11. Bowen University
12. University of Calabar
13. Caleb University
14. Chrisland University
15. Christopher University
16. Edwin Clark University
17. Edwin Clark University
18. Federal University, Gashua
19. Federal University, Gusau
20. Federal University, Kashere
21. Federal University, Birnin Kebbi
22. Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta
23. Godfrey Okoye University
24. Gregory University
25. Gombe State University
26. Hallmark University
27. University of Ilorin
28. Al-Qalam University
29. Kwara State University
30. Landmark University
31. Mountain Top University
32. Nigerian Defence Academy
33. Northwest University
34. Obong University
35. Olabisi Onabanjo University
36. Renaissance University
37. Rhema University
38. Ritman University
39. Southwestern University
40. Summit University
41. Kings University
42. Veritas University
43. Western Delta University
44. Wesley University. of Science & Technology
45. Mcpherson University
46. Nigerian-Turkish Nile University
47. Achievers University
48. Adamawa State University
49. Ajayi Crowther University
50. Bingham University
51. Benson Idahosa University
52. Covenant University
53. Crawford University
54. Federal University, Ndifu-Alike.
55. Federal University, Otuoke
56. Fountain Unveristy
57. Joseph Ayo Babalola University
58. Kaduna State University
59. Kogi State University
60. Niger Delta University
61. Novena University
62. Paul University
63. Redeemer’s University
64. Samuel Adegboyega University
65. Salem University
NPA
  • Biology

Another course studied by a very large population of students at Nigerian Police Academy, is biology. Biology students at this school are exposed to a lot of things within their four-year programme. On graduation, biology graduates of the school will be qualified to work as biological scientists, medical assistants and clinical lab technologists. Works for biology students, are not limited to biological ccientists, medical assistants and clinical lab technologists, there are still a lot of other jobs open to them.
Just like accounting, biology has WAEC/NECO and UTME requirements. An aspirant who wishes to study the course is required to have at least credit pass in the following WAEC/NECO courses: Mathematics, English Language, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. As regards to UTME, the aspirant is required to have the following as their subjects: English Language, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology.
There are a good number of universities in the country offering biology as a degree course, some of them include:
1. Afe Babalola University
2. University of Abuja
3. Adamawa State University
4. Babcock University
5. Bayero University
6. Bingham University
7. Covenant University
8. Cross River State
9. University of Science & Technology
10. Ebonyi State University
11. Elizade University
12. Enugu State University of Science and Technology
13. Evangel University
14. Federal University, Kashere
15. Federal University, Dutsin-Ma
16. Federal University, Ndifu-Alike
17. Federal University of Technology, Akure
18. Godfrey Okoye University
19. Gregory University
20. Gombe State University
21. University of Ilorin
22. Kaduna State University
23. Kano University of Science & Technology
24. University of Lagos
25. Landmark University
26. University of Mkar
27. Northwest University
28. Nigerian-Turkish Nile University
29. Salem University
30. Sokoto State University
This is it on Nigeria Police Academy School Fees and Courses. We cherish your opinion and we look forward to it. Hence, if you need us to feed you with more updated information at the right time about Nigeria Police Academy school fees 2018, kindly subscribe with your email address to our newsletter.

Read also:

Nigeria Police Academy Entrance Exam Date – 2018/19
Nigeria Police Academy Entrance Exam Centres & Subjects – 2018/19
Nigeria Police Academy (NPA) Admission Form – 2018/19
2017/18 Nigeria Police Academy (NPA) Admission – 2018/19

Source:
Naijaquest
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Monday, 29 October 2018

2019/2020 ACI Foundation International Fellowships in USA & Canada

The ACI Foundation promotes progress, innovation, and collaboration in the concrete industry through strategic investments in research, scholarship and ideas.
                                                           
Undergraduate or postgraduate Fellowship for international students by ACI Foundation in the field of structural design, materials, construction, into schools in USA and Canada.

Course Level: Undergraduate, Graduate (Masters, PhD)


Eligible Countries: All

To be Taken at (Country): ACI Foundation Fellowships can be awarded to anyone in the world; however, you must attend a U.S. or Canadian university during the award year.

Fields of Study: Structural Design, Materials, Construction

Eligibility Criteria: Before beginning the application have the answers ready for these four questions.

When submitting the application, what is your educational status (undergrad, grad, or PhD)?
When the award year begins next fall, what will your status be (undergrad, grad, or PhD)?
Following the application season, can you attend an interview at the Spring ACI Convention on March 25, 2018? Travel and hotel arrangements will be made through and paid for by the ACI Foundation.
Can you fulfill a 10 to 12-week internship the summer before the award year?
During the award year, you must be a full-time student for the regular school year.

Selection Criteria: Based on essays, submitted data and endorsements, the Scholarship Council of the ACI Foundation will select scholarship and fellowship recipients who appear to have the strongest combination of interest and potential for professional success in the concrete industry.

Method of Application: Now Open! Apply Now!

It is important to go through the Application instructions on the Scholarship Webpage (see Link below) before applying.

Visit Scholarship Webpage for more details

Scholarship Application Deadline: 1st November, 2018.

Award Provider: American Concrete Institute
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Wednesday, 5 September 2018

NCID PhD Fellowships At University Of Michigan in USA 2018

NCID's Statement on
Diversity Research & Scholarship

Scholars who have furthered our understanding of historical and contemporary social issues related to identity, difference, culture, representation, power, oppression, and inequality — as they occur and affect individuals, groups, communities, and institutions — have played a key role in supporting positive social change.
                                               

In keeping with NCID’s commitment to social change, we promote and support diversity research and scholarship. Our framework for diversity scholarship is not limited to particular disciplines, topics, populations, or methodologies. Instead, we articulate guiding principles, defining diversity research and scholarship as work that broadly seeks to:

inform understanding of historical and contemporary issues of social inequality across societal contexts and life domains (e.g., in education, arts and culture, health and mental health, economic and occupational attainment and mobility, infrastructure and community development)
illuminate the challenges and opportunities that arise when individuals from different backgrounds and frames of reference come together in significant societal contexts, such as schools and colleges, neighborhoods and communities, work teams in organizations
inform our understanding of systems of power and privilege and their interactions with groups historically underrepresented and marginalized based on identities including but not limited to race, ethnicity, gender, social/economic class, culture, sexual identity, ability status, and religion
highlight the experiences of disenfranchised populations, whose narratives have traditionally been relegated to the outer periphery of intellectual inquiry and academic scholarship, made invisible through epistemologies and research methods that privilege dominant social groups
foreground the knowledge systems, assets and resources, and cultural strengths of members of historically marginalized communities in order to promote empowerment of individuals and groups from these communities

The National Center for Institutional Diversity (NCID) invites applications from Interested applicants who are looking to pursue a fellowship program in USA.

This is a one-year (12 month) fellowship that is aimed at promoting and supporting the work of outstanding early career diversity scholars.

Course Level: Post-doctorate Fellowships

Eligibility Criteria: Applications are welcome from scholars engaging in diversity scholarship, in any field or department represented in the University of Michigan’s schools and colleges. Applicants’ doctoral degrees should be completed between January 1, 2016 and July 1, 2019.

Also Apply:  Study In USA: Laurels Scholarships For Women In Accounting – 2018
Method of Application: The application for the NCID Postdoctoral Fellowship will require the submission of:

CV;
Statement of proposed scholarship and writing to be conducted during the fellowship year (2-3 pages in pdf format; references, citations, formulas, and graphics do not count toward the page limit);
Statement of contribution explaining how the applicant’s scholarship and demonstrated diversity commitments will contribute to both NCID and a related U-M academic or research unit (1-3 pages in pdf format);
Dissertation abstract;
Writing sample (should be no more than 35 pages in pdf format e.g., sample publication or research paper in progress, journal article, dissertation chapter; references, citations, formulas, and graphics do not count toward the page limit); and
At least two letters of recommendation (maximum of three).
Click Here To Begin Application

Scholarship Application Deadline: December 3, 2018
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MSc Fellowship Program for Junior or Mid-Career Diplomats in USA, 2019

USINDO was founded in 1994 by Indonesians and Americans who had experience in both countries and who saw the need for an organization that would enhance the understanding of Indonesia and the United States in each other’s country, and deepen the relationship between the two countries and their peoples. The Society is incorporated in the District of Columbia and is a tax-exempt charitable and educational organization as described in Section 501(c)3 of the Internal Revenue Code of the United States.            

The USINDO is delighted to announce Edward E. Masters Fellowship for the year 2019. This fellowship is awarded to highly qualified KEMLU junior or mid-career diplomats for programs of study beginning in Fall 2019.
Course Level: Fellowships are available to pursue Master degree programme.
Eligible Countries: This fellowship is available for Indonesian students.
Eligibility Criteria: Applicants must meet the following criteria:
USINDO is now seeking applications from highly qualified KEMLU junior or mid-career diplomats for the programs of study beginning in Fall 2019. Coordinators at Pusdiklat and USINDO provide support for those candidates accepted into the fellowship to select and apply to schools, accept university offers, process visas, and address any issues that may arise through the duration of their studies.
Interested applicants should note that minimum requirements are somewhat flexible. If a candidate does not achieve the minimum requirement in one section of the application but is very strong in others, this will be considered during the selection process. Candidates should not be deterred from applying because they do not meet quantitative minimums outlined in the application.
Method of Application: Applications for the 2019 Intake are due via email to Mr Herry Hotma (at admin.dskld-at-kemlu.go.id) at Pusdiklat no later than 5 September 2018 at 17:00 WIB.
Late applications, including recommendation letters, will not be accepted. It is the responsibility of each applicant to ensure his/her recommendation letters are received before the deadline.
Applications must include the following to be considered complete unless otherwise noted:
Edward E. Masters Application: The application can be downloaded from the USINDO website.Two (2) recommendation letters: Recommendation letters should not be submitted directly by applicants. Letters must be submitted via email by the recommender directly to Pusdiklat at dskld-at-kemlu.go.id. Letters must be from one academic and one professional source using the USINDO Letter of Recommendation Form available at https://goo.gl/Tmycms.Results from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or another English language test: A minimum score of 575 or equivalent is required to be considered for the program and entered into the TOEFL preparatory course. Applicants can submit a minimum two years old expired TOEFL or TOEFL Test. But, selected candidates will be required to achieve a minimum of 600 or equivalent following the preparatory course to become an Edward E. Masters Fellow.Results from GRE. Should you already have one, please submit your GRE results. Conditional candidates without a previous GRE result will be required to take the test following the GRE preparatory course. Selected candidates will be required to achieve minimum scores as indicated below following the preparatory course to become an Edward E. Masters Fellow.Transcripts for all university-level work: Unofficial transcripts will suffice for this application. Selected conditional candidates will be required to submit official transcripts.Academic writing sample: Writing samples must be submitted in English, be no more than 900 words in length, written independently (i.e. not a group paper, or with assistance), and analytical.Personal statement: Personal statements must be submitted in English and be no more than 600 words in length. Your personal statement should state clearly your reasons for pursuing higher education in the United States, and discuss the professional, academic and personal experiences that have most contributed to your desire to study international affairs, what you hope to study and why, your career ambitions, and how your program of study relates to them.Curriculum Vitae (CV) or Resume: CVs or resumes must include position and job description, such as responsibilities and accomplishments at each occupation, as well as the length of employment.

Scholarship Link

Scholarship Application Deadline: September 5, 2018
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Tuesday, 21 August 2018

Full-Time Scholarships At Sheffield Hallam University, UK 2018

Sheffield Hallam University (SHU) is a public university in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It is based on two sites; the City Campus is located in the city centre near Sheffield railway station, while the Collegiate Crescent Campus is about two miles away in the Broomhall Estate off Ecclesall Road in south-west Sheffield.
                                               
The university is the 11th largest university in the UK (out of 167) with 30,815 students (of whom 4,400 are international students), 4,494 staff and 708 courses.

The scholarships will be awarded to well-qualified students who demonstrate academic, personal or professional achievement on their scholarship application form

Applications are invited from International students who are willing to pursue a degree program at the Sheffield Hallam University, UK.

Course Level: Undergraduate and Postgraduate

Eligible Countries: International

Eligibility Criteria: To be eligible to apply for one of these scholarships you must

Be an international or a European Union (non-UK) fee paying student
Postgraduate only – have achieved a minimum 2.1 or equivalent in your honours degree and must meet the English and academic entry requirements for your course.
Undergraduate only – have achieved the English and academic entry requirements for the course. If you are awarded an undergraduate scholarship, you must successfully complete each year of study to continue to receive the fee waiver.
Have accepted an offer for a full-time taught undergraduate or postgraduate course at Sheffield Hallam University.
Be fully self-funding your studies. Please see our frequently asked questions if you are unsure if this applies to you.
Also Apply For:  MSc Scholarships For International Students at Geneva Academy

Method of Application:  To apply for a Transform Together Scholarship for January 2019, please follow these steps

Apply for a course at Sheffield Hallam. If you have not applied for a course, please visit our online prospectus
Check you meet the scholarship eligibility criteria listed above
When you have accepted an offer to study on a course here, apply for a scholarship online using the link below by the closing date of 1 November 2018
Scholarship application form
Send your academic transcripts to [email protected] by 1 November 2018
You will be notified if you have been successful within one month of the deadline. All decisions are at the University’s discretion and are final.
Also Apply For:  School of Transnational Law Scholarship at Peking University, China 2018
Scholarship link

Scholarship Application Deadline: 1st November 2018 for January 2019 Intake

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Friday, 17 August 2018

MSc Scholarships For International Students at Geneva Academy

The Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights provides post-graduate education, conducts academic legal research and policy.
                                                       
The Geneva Academy offers partial and full scholarships for its LLM in International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights and Master of Advanced Studies in Transitional Justice, Human Rights and the Rule of Law. Partial scholarships cover tuition fees. Full scholarships cover tuition fees and living expenses in Geneva for 10 months.

Course Level:

•  LLM in International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights
•  Master of Advanced Studies in Transitional Justice, Human Rights and the Rule of Law

Eligibility Criteria:

Partial and full scholarships are allocated through a highly competitive process based on academic merit, extra-curricular achievements and the candidate’s financial needs. Applicants from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United States and Western Europe can only be considered for partial scholarships.

Also Apply For:  Medical Sciences Postgraduate Scholarships At Newcastle University, UK
Method of Application: Applications open 19 November 2019.

Scholarship requests must be submitted with the candidate’s application. When applying, candidates must choose between two tracks: application with scholarship (partial or full) or application without scholarship. If candidates apply to both tracks, their application will be considered under the non-scholarship track. Successful applicants who choose only the non-scholarship track cannot subsequently be considered for a scholarship. Deadline for applications is 1 February 2019.

It is important to visit the official website (link found below) to access the application form and for detailed information on how to apply for this scholarship.

Scholarship link

Scholarship Application Deadline: 1 Feb 2019 (annual)
Course starts September 2019
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Monday, 23 July 2018

Fully-Funded Scholarships At University Of Witwatersrand in South Africa, 2018

The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, is a multi-campus South African public researchuniversity situated in the northern areas of central Johannesburg. It is more commonly known as Wits University or Wits
The University Of Witwatersrand – South Africa is offering 14 Fully-funded Scholarships to Interested applicants who are looking to pursue a degree program at the Institution.
This scholarship prorgam will be given to students in the following fields:
  • MSc in Development Planning
  • Masters in Urban Studies in the fields of
    • Housing and Human Settlements
    • Sustainable Energy Efficient Cities
    • Urban Politics and Governance
    • Urban Management
Course Level: Masters
Eligible Countries: African Countries
Eligibility Criteria:
  • Applicants must be Africans
  • Applicants must have applied or applying to University Of Witwatersrand – South Africa
  • Applicants must have completed their bachelors degree program
  • Applicants must be fluent in English Language
Method of Application: Click Here To Apply
Scholarship Application Deadline: September 30th 2018
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MSc Scholarships at NTI Hsing Yun Education Foundation in Australia, 2018

The new Hsing Yun Education Foundation (HYEF) scholarship for international students is now available at Nan Tien Institute (NTI) to study in Australia. These scholarships assist high achieving international students to undertake Applied Buddhist Studies programs.
Course Level: Scholarships are available to chase Master degree programme.
Eligible Countries: These scholarships are available for international students.
Eligibility Criteria: Applicants must meet the following criteria:
The applicant must have been admitted or been offered admission to one of the following Applied Buddhist Studies courses at NTI:
  • Master of Arts (Applied Buddhist Studies)
  • Graduate Diploma of Applied Buddhist Studies
  • Graduate Certificate in Applied Buddhist Studies
Method of Application: A complete International Scholarship Application Form and all the supporting documentation should be emailed to scholarships-at-nantien.edu.au by the closing date. We cannot accept late submissions.
CHECKLIST
  • Letter of recommendation
  • Personal statement
  • Details of other awards or scholarships, if any
  • Any other documents to support your application
  • Sign the declaration on this application form

Application Form

Scholarship Link

Scholarship Applications Deadline: October 18, 2018
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Wednesday, 30 May 2018

Merit-Based Scholarship at Mississippi College in USA, 2018

Mississippi College is a Christian university located in Clinton, Mississippi, just west of the capital city of Jackson. Founded in 1826, MC is the second-oldest Baptist-affiliated college in the United States and the oldest college in Mississippi. With more than 5,000 students, Mississippi College is the largest private university in the state.
                                                             
Merit-Based Scholarship at Mississippi College in USA, 2018
The Mississippi College is inviting applications for OGE Merit-Based Scholarships. The scholarships are available for international students who are classified as sophomores, juniors, or seniors in their undergraduate academic program at Mississippi College after they have completed their first two semesters of academic study.
                           
Course Level: Scholarships are available for pursuing undergraduate programme.

Eligible Nationalities: Scholarships are open to international students.

Eligibility Criteria: Qualified applicants must have a GPA of 2.5 or higher in the previous semester, and students must have at least one volunteer event to report on the application.

Method of Application: The application is two pages, so be sure to complete the entire process. Once it is completed, please send the entire application complete with your personal essay. Once the application is submitted, you will receive a confirmation of receipt. If you do not receive a confirmation, please call Ms. Phala Echols at the Office of Global Education to be sure your application was received.
Also Apply For:  Government of Poland Undergraduate, MSc & PhD Scholarship for African Students, 2017

The Merit-Based Scholarship Application should be downloaded and completed electronically.
Scholarship Link

Scholarship Application Deadline: July 13, 2018
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Saturday, 24 March 2018

Analysis of Patience Swift's The Last Good Man


The Last Good Man by Patience Swift

Description

Sam is a loner, but he likes that. He enjoys his own company, and the company of nature. His life is shaken up when he finds a girl washed up on the beach. He takes her in and looks after her. Isobel is also alone, back in the village to deal with her mothers estate. She has been looking for love that she has read about, but without success. She crosses Sams path too, and things start to look up. Sam takes in the two ladies and his life changes for good.

This is a short book. It is descriptive and enjoyable. It is an easy read, with short, simple sentences. The book flowed and was a lovely read, even though it is a tragic read. It is beautiful read. Swift writes gorgeous characters, and wonderful scenery. Sam was sweet and caring. Isobel was vulnerable, with a troubled streak. The girl is silent, but was happy and a lovely read.

Analysis

THEMES OF THE BOOK
 DEATH: In the book The Last Good Man, the theme of death is one of the key prominent. The author Patient swift uses the theme of death to drive home her point and also to open another facet in her literary work. The book opens with the death of a man in the sea. Subsequently, the death of Isobels mother was mentioned and more so was the death of Isobels father that in turn reconnected us back to the Sams father that died in the sea and also his mother that eventually followed. The theme of death in the book was crowned at its tail end with the unfortunate death of Sam.

LONELINESS: The theme of loneliness finds its expression in each and every character featured in the book. Sams loneliness got to the top that he didnt have a choice that he started talking to the living furniture in the house. Sam was so lonely that when birds fly in is roof he finds himself communicating with them. Isobel was not left out as she lived an isolated live devoid of parental care, love and affection. These we clearly saw in the book when Isobel left her home in her teenage age. More so, it was recorded in the book that loneliness and the want for attention meticulously claimed the life of Isobels mother, Isobels father and Sams mother. The little girl was not spared from the state of loneliness as she got her own portion in the abandoned resources of loneliness this was seen in the book when the little girl was abandoned to die in the sea without anybody to talk, play with or befriend.

MAN AGAINST SOCIETY: The theme is basically outstanding in the book as we see individual (man) trying to fight against society norms and society in turns fight back. Isobel was treated with scorn because she dares to go against set standard in the society .this she did when she disobeyed her mother constituency by hanging out with friends in odd places and reading odd books. When fought back, Isobel had to leave the village in search of a common society that will accommodate her gestures. Sam on the other hand fought against the society and against the machinery of the state when the state fought back it led to Sams death.

Characters/ Characterization

Sam
Sam is very huge, He alone at the sea side. His life changes when Isobel and the silent girl came into his life. The book revolves around him, as he is a round character.
Isobel
Isobel, is a girl from a broken home that lacks marital bliss, open communication and companionship. A product of divorced couples, she embarks on a search for true love that she has so passionately read about from the bookshelf.
The lost Girl
 She is a nine-year old girl who is the unfathomable mysterious element in the novel. She was found by Sam on the beach, half dead. She is a silent intruder.
Marion
Marion is Isabel’s childhood friend who got married to a local fisherman. She is happily married with 3 Children.



SETTING: The setting of the book is basically traditional and remote in its analysis in other words the book uses the traditional literary setting in a spurious manner. The location of the book is founded on a village platform which is rural area.
 
POINT OF VIEW: The point of view used in the book is basically a third persons perspective/omnificent point of view this we clearly saw in the book as the author tried to distant her involvement in the characterisations by so doing the author made us to not only to see what she sees but also what she feels in cause of writing the book. Although at the ending, it tends to be a mixed up or a prose argon [point of view argon].  

SUSPENSE: This is a narrative technique that keeps a reader in a turbulence state or desirous state of wanting for more. This device was perfectly used by the author in other to drive home her point of keeping her readers on their toes for the love of the love of the book. Each character used in the book were placed in such a way that the readers squeak to know what will happen next to either character A OR B

Symbolism
The novel has a plethora of symbols that presents level of deeper understanding and interpretation of work by any critical analysis..They include
Death
The image of the sea and it's complete supremacy against the will of man.
True love is seen as unattainable ideal, no matter how we pust to shove and acquire it.
Nature is seen therapeutic remedy for troubled soul while the staggered life of disillusion and communality is seen as a draw back to the health and the soul. Sam was fine living by himself, for himself until he got involved with human society and civilization.

Language
The language is easy, vivid and strong narrative of presentations of events and picturesque of places like the side of the sea where Sam's home is situated.

Narrative Technique
The story is told in two narrative forms : third person narrative style and first person narrative techniques towards the end part of the .This is done for a more dramatic effect and attempt to create a distinctive style for the author.

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Wednesday, 28 February 2018

The School Boy by William Blake : Themes, Imagery And Symbolism


The School Boy by William Blake : Themes, Imagery And Symbolism

Themes.
The loss of Innocence.
Entrapment, Confinement.
Parental care and Authority.
The Stand point of Children.
Imagery and Symbolism.
Structure.
                                                     
         The School Boy by William Blake Themes, Imagery And Symbolism
                       
"The School Boy" is a 1789 poem by William Blake and published as a part of his poetry collection entitled "Songs of Innocence."
The poem is written in the pastoral tradition that focuses on the downsides of formal learning. It considers how going to school on a summer day "drives all joy away".The boy in this poem is more interested in escaping his classroom.

Themes

1. The Loss of innocence

Innocence is presented here as freedom from constraint and self-consciousness. The child starts out taking pleasure in an uninhibited life, full of trust in his world, both natural and human. The fragility of this state is clear from images like blossoms' and tender plants .. strip'd'. The child soon experiences the woe' in life and of learning the possibility of failure and betrayal.
The poem begins in Stanza I with the poet giving us a pastoral image of the innocence of nature reminiscent of that in The Introduction from Innocence, some critics have pointed out the similarity of The distant huntsman winds his horn in this poem with Piping down the valleys wild in The Introduction of Innocence. The poem gives us an image of rising with the company of many natural joys, not just the huntsman but birds sing on every tree and the sky-lark sings with me. It is in Stanza II that we see the oppression of the natural by authority typical of Experience and continued through the rest of the poem. This stanza compares the pastoral imagery of Stanza I with that of the cruel eye outworn, and the sighing and dismay of the children in the school room. The contrast is heightened by the similarity of the opening lines, both ending in a summer morn and the way this forces a similar rhyme across the two, and the similar metre and beginning of O! what sweet company. ending Stanza I and O! it drives all joy away; in the second line of Stanza II. The similarities enhance the differences in the two images and show childhood in the two states of pastoral innocence and the experience in restrictive school days leaving the reader with a feeling for the loss of youth.

2. Entrapment, Confinement

Images of confinement abound in the Songs. Blake the revolutionary opposed the coercive strictures of the Establishment' the state, organised religion etc. - which sought to quantify and rule all aspects of human behaviour. Here, education is formalised and restrictive, actually stunting the development of those it claimed to nurture. Prison imagery is seen in the cruel eye' of the overseer and the cage' of the bird.
Images of confinement is further, abound in the Songs. Blake the revolutionary opposed the coercive strictures of the Establishment' the state, organised religion etc. - which sought to quantify and rule all aspects of human behaviour. Here, education is formalised and restrictive, actually stunting the development of those it claimed to nurture. Prison imagery is seen in the cruel eye' of the overseer and the cage' of the bird.
Blake saw the natural child as an image of the creative imagination which is the human being's spiritual core. He was concerned about the way in which social institutions such as the school system and parental authority crushed the capacity for imaginative vision. The child's capacity for happiness and play are expressions of this imagination.

3. Parental care and authority

In Blake's work, parents are often perceived as inhibiting and repressing their children. Their own fears and shame are communicated to the next generation through the parental desire to protect' children from their desires. According to Blake, parents misuse care' to repress children, rather than setting the children free by rejoicing in, and safeguarding, their capacity for play and imagination. Here, parents are seen as colluding with a repressive system; it is as though they are entrapped by a way of seeing the world and transmit that entrapment to their offspring by perpetuating the system.
Stanzas V and VI are appeals to the alternate authority of the parents to realise the predicament of the child and the dangers in this suppression of natural learning. Stanza V gives us a strong image of nature destroyed with :-

if buds are nipd,
And blossoms blown away,
And if the tender plants are stripd

4. The Standpoint of children

Is the child born free and good, as Rousseau believed, or born sinful, as the Calvinist Christians believed?
Or is this opposition the result of fallen human beings' inability to recognise that the capacity for good and evil both belong to humanity?
Blake's idea that a young child can clearly see God echoes the Romantic sensibility articulated by Wordsworth, that children had an existence in heaven before the commencement of their earthly life. 

Imagery and symbolism

This poem depends upon three inter-related images, the schoolboy, the bird and the plant. All three are dependent upon, or vulnerable to, the way in which they are treated by human beings.

Schoolboy - The image of the child here focuses on his nature as free and unfettered. He is associated with the spring as a time for growth, freshness and playfulness. As such, the child represents the playful, free nature of the creative imagination. According to Blake, this was fettered by subjection to the demands of a system which denies the validity of imagination. In The School Boy, formal education involves subjection to a cruel' eye and cruelty in Blake is always linked with the denial of imaginative freedom and of the spiritual self.

Bird - The bird imagery allows for the comparison between the free child being imprisoned in school and the songbird being caged. The unity between bird and boy is emphasised in stanza one. The sky-lark sings with me'. This inverts our expectations. We tend to think of the sky-lark as the primary singer, with whom people might sing along. Here, however, it is the child who is the first singer. It is as natural to him as to the lark, as though he were another bird.

Birds are also images of freedom. Their capacity for flight and for song makes them appropriate images of creative imagination, since poets sing' and imagination is often linked with the notion of flight. The schoolboy in school and the bird in the cage are, therefore, seen as equivalents not only at the natural level, under physical subjection, but at the spiritual level, too. Both represent the caging and entrapping of imaginative vision.

Plant - The image of the plant applies to the school boy's present and future. The young plant, like the young child, is tender and vulnerable. The way it (and the child) is treated at this stage dictates its later capacity to bear fruit. Just as food gathered in autumn is necessary to ensure survival through the winter, so experiences of joy and the freedom of the imagination are necessary for a person's capacity to live well and survive the inevitable griefs' of life.

Structure

poem is a dramatic monologue, written in rhyme scheme (ababb).
It contains six stanzas of 30 lines. It examines the element of nature in proferring solution to learning and creative development.

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