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Thursday, 3 August 2017

Analysis of Half of Yellow Son by Adichie Chimamanda

Summary of Half of Yellow Son by Adichie Chimamanda

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The novel takes place in Nigeria prior to and during the Nigerian Civil War (1967–70). The effect of the war is shown through the dynamic relationships of five people’s lives including twin daughters of an influential businessman, a professor, a British citizen, and a houseboy. After Biafra's declaration of secession, the lives of the main characters drastically changed and were torn apart by the brutality of the civil war and decisions in their personal lives.

The book jumps between events that took place during the early and late 1960s, when the war took place, and extends until the end of the war. In the early 1960s, the main characters are introduced: Ugwu, a 13-year-old village boy who moves in with Odenigbo, to work as his houseboy. Odenigbo frequently entertains intellectuals to discuss the political turmoil in Nigeria. Life changes for Ugwu when Odenigbo’s girlfriend, Olanna, moves in with them. Ugwu forms a strong bond with both of them, and is very loyal. Olanna has a twin sister, Kainene, a woman with a dry sense of humor, tired by the pompous company she runs for her father. Her lover Richard is an Englishman who has come to Nigeria to explore Igbo-Ukwu art.

Jumping four years ahead, trouble is brewing between the Hausa and the Igbo people and hundreds of people die in massacres, including Olanna's beloved auntie and uncle. A new republic, called Biafra, is created by the Igbo. As a result of the conflict, Olanna, Odenigbo, their infant daughter, whom they refer to only as "Baby", and Ugwu are forced to flee Nsukka, which is the university town and the major intellectual hub of the new nation. They finally end up in the refugee town of Umuahia, where they suffer as a result of food shortages and the constant air raids and paranoid atmosphere. There are also allusions to a conflict between Olanna and Kainene, Richard and Kainene and Olanna and Odenigbo.

When the novel jumps back to the early 1960s, we learn that Odenigbo slept with a village girl, who then had his baby. Olanna is furious at his betrayal, and sleeps with Richard in a moment of liberation. She goes back to Odenigbo and when they later learn that Amala refused to keep her newborn daughter, Olanna decides that they would keep her.

Back during the war Olanna, Odenigbo, Baby, and Ugwu were living with Kainene and Richard where Kainene was running a refugee camp. The situation is hopeless as they have no food or medicine. Kainene decides to trade across enemy lines, but does not return, even after the end of the war a few weeks later. The book ends ambiguously, with the reader not knowing if Kainene live

Roles and Anlysis of Characters in Half of Yellow son Adichie Chimamanda

Major and Minor Character in Half of Yellow son


Roles and Character Analysis of Ugwu in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Ugwu –
The novel starts and ends with Ugwu. He is a village boy from Opi who later becomes a servant in Odenigbo’s house. Under Odenigbo and Olanna’s guidance, Ugwu is able to continue his education and his literary skills progress throughout the novel.[2] He tries to maintain contact with his mother and sister, Anulika, back in his home village, and is constantly looking out for his mother’s health and wellbeing. His free time is often dominated by his love interests, which include Nnesinachi, Eberechi, and Chinyere. His life is violently interrupted when he is forcibly conscripted into the Biafrain Army. There, he witnesses and participates in gruesome battles and a rape.





Roles and Character Analysis of Odenigbo in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Odenigbo – Odenigbo starts the novel as Professor of Mathematics at Nsukka University. His strong opinions result in some characters labeling him as a “revolutionary.” He favors socialism and tribalism to capitalism and Pan-Africanism or nationalism. After the war forces him to vacate his position at Nsukka University, Odenigbo becomes active in the war cause under Manpower Directorate . His personal life is dominated by his relationship and later marriage to Olanna. He is the father of Baby, though Amala, not Olanna, is Baby’s mother. Odenigbo also has a strong, albeit turbulent, relationship with his mother. “Mama” affects his relationship with Olanna, and Mama’s death starts Odenigbo on a dark path of alcoholism and depression.



Roles and Character Analysis of Olanna in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Olanna – Olanna is one of three characters through which the novel is told (the others being Ugwu and Richard). She is the daughter of Chief Ozobia and twin of Kainene. Olanna was raised in Nigeria, and later attended university in the United Kingdom. She is described as “illogically beautiful,” and her appearance often dictates how others treat her. For example, her parents try to offer sex with her as a bribe to help secure business deals. Consequently, her connection with her parents is weak and she gravitates towards her Aunt Ifeka and Uncle Mbaezi in Kano. Mohammed is her ex-boyfriend and Odenigbo is her husband, and she is the adopted mother of Baby. Professionally, she is a Professor of Sociology at Nsukka University before the war begins. She later works as a school teacher in Umuahia and finally helps her sister care for refugees in Orlu.



Roles and Character Analysis of Kainene in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Kainene – Kainene, Olanna’s twin, seems to be at first very different from Olanna. She is the type of strong-headed woman, independent, cold, very calculated. Kainene lives in Port Harcourt where she runs her father’s business. Her father, very proud of her, tells one of his friends that she is “not just like a son, she is like two.” In the beginning of the war, she is a war profiteer. However, after she witnesses the war’s cruelty, she changes completely as a character and instead of running her father’s business, she runs a refugee camp. She remains fearless and in the end decides to trade with the enemy, putting her life at risk.





Roles and Character Analysis of Richard Churchill in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Richard Churchill – Richard is an English writer who comes to Nigeria to explore Igbo-Ukwu art. At first he associates with other expats, especially Susan who becomes his girlfriend. However, once he meets Kainene at one of the parties Susan drags him to, he becomes fascinated with her. Richard moves to Nsukka where he teaches at the Nsukka University and attempts to write a book about the Igbo-Ukwu art. Olanna invites him to be part of Odenigbo’s circle of intellectuals. Richard is glad to witness Biafra’s birth, thinking it would actually make him Biafran. He starts writing a book about the war, but soon realizes that it is not his story to tell. Adichie has said in an interview that the idea of Richard came from Frederick Forsyth, a staunch supporter of Biafra: “Richard isn’t at all like him, of course, but just the sense of an Englishman who became more Biafran than Biafrans themselves, was really an idea that came from him, Forsyth.”




Roles and Character Analysis of Ugwu's aunty in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Ugwu's aunty – Cleaner at Nsukka University, she introduces Ugwu to Master Odenigbo.




Roles and Character Analysis of Anulika in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Anulika – Anulika is Ugwu’s sister. She is preparing to get married before the war, but a war-time tragedy changes her plans.





Roles and Character Analysis of Nnesinachi in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Nnesinachi – Ugwu’s first crush from his village of Opi. Ugwu and Nnesinachi reconnect after the war.





Roles and Character Analysis of Ugwu's mother in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Ugwu's mother – Ugwu’s mother suffers from illness in Ugwu’s home village of Opi. She seeks treatment in Nsukka with Odenigbo’s help. Ugwu often worries about her during the war.




Roles and Character Analysis of Miss Adebayo in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Miss Adebayo –Yoruba professor at Nsukka University. Sexual tension between Miss Adebayo and Odenigbo create an awkward relationship between Miss Adebayo and Olanna. As the war starts to break out, Miss Adebayo’s ethnicity creates a gap between her and other professors.




Roles and Character Analysis of Dr Patel in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Dr Patel – Indian Professor at Nsukka University. Dr. Patel is a friend of Odenigbo and Olanna.




Roles and Character Analysis of Professor Lehman in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Professor Lehman – American Professor at Nsukka University. Professor Lehman’s views are often criticized by Odenigbo.




Roles and Character Analysis of Professor Ezeka in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Professor Ezeka – Professor at Nsukka University who later becomes Director of Mobilization in the Biafran Army.




Roles and Character Analysis of Okeoma in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Okeoma – A friend of Olanna and Odenigbo in Nsukka. Okeoma is a renowned poet, as one point called, “the voice of our generation.” He cites Olanna as his inspiration. Okeoma later becomes an officer in the Biafran Army and stops writing poems.




Roles and Character Analysis of Edna in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Edna – Olanna’s neighbor in Nsukka. Edna is an African American woman with strong opinions on racial and gender injustice.




Roles and Character Analysis of Jomo in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Jomo – Jomo works as the gardener at both Richard’s house and Odenigbo’s house in Nsukka. He is one of Ugwu’s first friends in Nsukka and is also often feuding with his rival, Harrison.




Roles and Character Analysis of Harrison in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Harrison – Richard’s houseboy. Harrison’s talkative nature at first annoys Richard, and later gets him into trouble.




Roles and Character Analysis of Chinyere in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Chinyere – Works in a house near Master’s in Nsukka. Maintains late night visits with Ugwu until the war starts.



Roles and Character Analysis of Mama (Odenigbo's mother) in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Mama (Odenigbo's mother) – A village woman from Abba. She is opposed to the relationship between Odenigbo and Olanna because they are not officially married (no bride price paid yet) plus Olanna is an unnatural woman.




Roles and Character Analysis of Amala in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Amala – A village girl who works for Mama, Odenigbo’s mother. To break up Olanna and Odenigbo Mama makes Amala sleep with Odenigbo. Amala gets pregnant but after giving birth, she refuses to take the child and sends her back to Mama.



Roles and Character Analysis of Chief Okonji in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Chief Okonji – Friend of Olanna and Kainene’s parents. Chief Okonji claims a romantic interest in Olanna, but is thoroughly rebuffed by Olanna.



Roles and Character Analysis of Chief Ozobia in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Chief Ozobia – Prominent businessman in Lagos and father to Olanna and Kainene. Chief Ozobia manipulates his daughters for financial benefit. He also keeps a mistress, and eventually leaves Nigerian during the war.



Roles and Character Analysis of Olanna and Kainene's mother
in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda

Olanna and Kainene's mother – Chief Ozobia’s wife and mother of Olanna and Kainene. She does not have a strong relationship with her daughters, and her marriage with Chief Ozobi might be described as a pretense.



Roles and Character Analysis of Uncle Mbaezi in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Uncle Mbaezi – Olanna’s uncle, he is the brother of Olanna’s mother. He lives with his family in Kano where he founded the Igbo Union Grammar School.



Roles and Character Analysis of Aunty Ifeka in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Aunty Ifeka – Uncle Mbaezi’s wife. Aunty Ifeka gives guidance to Olanna, who isn’t very close to her own mother.




Roles and Character Analysis of Arize in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Arize – Olanna’s cousin, she is Uncle Mbaezi and Aunty Ifeka’s daughter. Arize is eager find a husband and get married. Like her parents, she looks up to Olanna.




Roles and Character Analysis of Mohammed in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Mohammed – Olanna’s ex-boyfriend. He is a handsome Hausa man. Even after she leaves him for Odenigbo, they remain on good terms and she frequently visits him until the war starts. During the war, writes her letters but they feel very distance.



Roles and Character Analysis of Baby in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Baby – Olanna and Odenigbo's daughter. Amala is Baby's birth mother, but refuses to keep her. When Olanna sees her, she decides to adopt her. Baby’s real name is Chiamaka, which means "God is beautiful." Kainene picked it but it is rarely used.



Roles and Character Analysis of Susan in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Susan – Initially Richard’s girlfriend. She lives in Nigeria but mainly associates with other expatriates or upper class Nigerians. Her racism towards Nigerians as well as her possessiveness towards Richard emerge periodically throughout the novel.



Roles and Character Analysis of Major Madu in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Major Madu – Lifelong friend of Kainene. Major Madu serves in first the Nigerian and later Biafran army. He and Richard’s relationship is strained due to the uncertainty of Madu’s role in Kainene’s life.



Roles and Character Analysis of Special Julius in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Special Julius – Army contractor. He becomes a frequent visitor of Odenigbo when they are in Umuahia.




Roles and Character Analysis of Ekwenugo in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Ekwenugo – Member of the Science group in the Biafran army. Ekwenugo meets Olanna and Odenigbo in Umuahia.




Roles and Character Analysis of Mrs Muokelu in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Mrs Muokelu – Co-teacher with Olanna at Umuahia. Olanna finds Mrs. Muokelu as manly and slightly judgmental. Mrs. Muokelu eventually stops teaching and starts trading across enemy lines.




Roles and Character Analysis of Mrs Muokelu in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Okoromadu – An old acquaintance of Olanna’s, Okoromadu helps her get emergency supplies for baby in Umuahia.



Roles and Character Analysis of Eberechi in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Eberechi – Ugwu’s love interest in Umuahia. Eberechi is exploited for her parents’ benefit.




Roles and Character Analysis of Alice in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda

Alice – Odenigbo and Olanna’s neigbhbor at their second place of residence in Umuahia. Alice is seeks refuge in Umahia after being tricked by an Army Colornel. She is known as a recluse and avid pianist. Mystery shrouds her relationship with Odenigbo.




Roles and Character Analysis of Father Marcel in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


Father Marcel – Helps coordinate refugee relief with Kainene in Orlu. Father Marcel is later accused of impropriety by some of the refugees.




Roles and Character Analysis of High-Tech in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda


High-Tech – A young soldier and leader of Ugwu’s reconnaissance unit. High tech’s name refers to his commanders claiming he is more useful than a “high technology spying gadget.”

Themes of Half of a Yellow Sun



The Theme of Colonialism and Nigerian Politics

The Theme of War and Violence

The Theme of Race and Culture

The Theme of Love




Theme Analysis of Half of a Yellow Sun



Colonialism and Nigerian Politics


Half of a Yellow Sun mostly deals with the Nigerian Civil War (also called the Biafran War), which took place between 1967 and 1970. Nigeria had only recently freed itself from British colonial rule at the time, and the country of Nigeria was itself an arbitrary unification (by its colonizers) of over 300 different ethnic groups. The largest of these were the Igbo in the Southeast, the Yoruba in the Southwest, and the Hausa in the North. Adichie paints a picture of this hopeful young country in its new independence through scenes at Odenigbo’s house, where politicians, professors, and poets argue and laugh together. But despite Independence in 1960, Nigerian politics were still under British influence (which wanted to maintain its access to Nigerian resources), mostly through the way the government was arranged – so that the autocratic Northern Hausa had the most control. Ultimately the tensions between the ethnic groups (exacerbated and sometimes even created by England) led to the massacres of Igbo people in 1966 and the Civil War that followed, with the secession of the Republic of Biafra in the Southeast.

Half of a Yellow Sun is told from the point of view of mostly Igbo characters – Ugwu, Odenigbo, Olanna, and Kainene – who are all affected by the massacres and the war, and hold a desperate hope in the future of Biafra. Adichie also gives us the viewpoint of an outsider, the white Englishman Richard, who though he belongs to the colonizers comes to identify closely with the Biafran cause through his love of Kainene (and yet, at the same time, can never actually be Biafran or completely extricate himself from the colonialist context or to separate his own objectification of Biafrans from his love of Kailene. Ultimately none of the political sides come out blameless in the conflict, just like the characters in the novel. England started all the trouble by colonizing and oppressing Nigeria, stirring up ethnic tensions, and supplying arms to Nigeria during the war; Nigeria used starvation and genocide as weapons of war, and the Biafran soldiers committed their own atrocities against the Nigerians and even their own people. The power of the novel is then to show human faces of different aspects of this conflict, and to portray individual tragedies and victories that bring to life events most Westerners aren’t even aware of.





War and Violence Theme Analysis




Most of the novel centers around the Nigerian Civil War, and the excessive cruelty and violence of this conflict affects all of the characters. This war was sparked by the massacres of Igbo people in 1966, when angry mobs killed soldiers and citizens as “retribution” for a government coup. The creation of Biafra was then a time of hope for the battered Igbo, but this was quickly tempered by the declaration of war from Nigeria. In Half of a Yellow Sun, Adichie contrasts scenes of peace and optimism (like the dinner parties at Odenigbo’s house) with sudden scenes of violence and fear. In this way she creates a tone of constant suspense, as the country becomes a place of danger and casual violence.

Anywhere from one to three million people died of starvation and fighting during the Biafran War, and Adichie draws out the personal tragedies in these astronomical numbers. She shows small horrors like a woman carrying her daughter’s severed head in a basket, the girl’s hair still carefully braided, or Ikejide having his head cut off by a piece of shrapnel. There are other tragedies as well, like the poet Okeoma giving up writing in order to fight, or Ugwu contributing to the horrors of war by participating in the rape of a bar girl. War and violence is often overwhelming in both the world and in the novel, and sometimes the only redemption seems to be trying to avoid history’s mistakes by fully confronting them, as we do in Adichie’s merciless writing.




Race and Culture Theme Analysis






Much of the conflict in Nigerian politics and between the characters of the novel has to do with race and culture. The root cause of this is the racist, oppressive colonization of Nigeria by the British Empire. This is illustrated in characters like Susan, who sees all Africans as less-civilized and inferior to white people. Colonialism also exacerbated cultural conflicts among the Nigerians themselves, as the country’s borders are a “unified” region created by England, forcing together over 300 different cultural groups. The main tension is between the Muslim, autocratic Hausa and the mostly-Christian, republican Igbo. The British colonizers gave most of the government control to the Hausa, as they were easier for the British to influence from afar, but the Igbo and the Yoruba developed the strongest middle class.

Adichie’s characters then represent many of these different cultures and races. Olanna and Kainene are upper-class Igbo, Odenigbo is a middle-class, intellectual Igbo, Ugwu is an extremely poor Igbo from a bush village, and Richard is a white English expatriate. Adichie is from an Igbo family herself, so she clearly identifies more with the Biafran cause, but she doesn’t shy away from portraying the mistakes and atrocities committed by Biafra. Overall her portrayal of the conflicts between race and culture shows the common humanity of all, and how even someone like Richard – a member of the oppressive culture – can be a force for good when he is willing to recognize the equal value of all people and try to help them.




Love Theme Analysis



Half of a Yellow Sun deals with political and historical events but it is also deeply personal, particularly in the love between its characters. The romantic relationships between Olanna and Odenigbo, Kainene and Richard, and Ugwu’s infatuation with Eberechi are at the center of the novel, as well as the sibling love between Olanna and Kainene. As with everything in the book, the personal is affected by the political and vice versa: Olanna’s love for Odenigbo brings her into his world of radical politics, and Richard’s love for Kainene causes him to cross racial and political boundaries.

The love between the sisters becomes a sort of symbol for the unity of Nigeria, as they painfully cut off ties but are eventually reunited. Ugwu’s longings for Nnesinachi and Eberechi are thwarted by the war, and then as a soldier he commits the atrocity of rape – the ultimate corruption of love. The love between Kainene and Richard and the love between the sisters seems the most enduring of the book, which makes it all the more tragic when Kainene disappears. Ultimately Adichie delves into all the deep aspects of the human experience: sex as well as violence, romance as well as cruelty, and though she shows great injustice and pain she also portrays love that can withstand such suffering.

The use of Synbols in Half of a Yellow Sun


The Symbolism of the Half of a Yellow Sun


Pg. 352 “She taught them about the Biafran flag. They sat on wooden planks and the weak morning sun streamed into the roofless class as she unfurled Odenigbo’s cloth flag and told them what the symbols meant. Red was the blood of the siblings massacred in the North, black was for mourning them, green was for the prosperity Biafra would have, and, finally, the half of the yellow sun stood for the glorious future.”


The title of the novel Half of a Yellow


The title of the novel Half of a Yellow Sun symbolizes, as shown in this passage, the glorious future. A glorious future is very hard to vision during a time of war, death and great violence such as the war that is raging on during this section of the novel. However, in order to keep people’s morale’s high they must have instilled in them some sort of hope and promise for a future that is better than what they had before, and definitely better than what they are enduring now. The best way to instill a sense of hope for a more glorious future is to instill a sense of pride and education in the future’s leaders- the children. Even the enemy knows the importance that educating children can play in improving the morale of the people- as they bombed the school where the education occurs. Bombing the school in some ways can be equivalent to bombing people’s hope for the brighter future that is promised.





Mrs. Muokelu:


Pg. 349-350 “She chuckled and shook her head and tugged at the half of a yellow sun around her neck. (also mentioned on pg. 333)



The fact that Mrs. Muokelu wears the symbol of the hope that the Biafran army tries to instill upon the civilians displays the hope that she carries for a brighter future ahead of them. She is an elementary school teacher, which is an essential factor for educating the next generation. She also seems to help keep Olanna’s, as well as other people’s, spirit’s lifted. On pg. 332, she speaks about her visions, which shows positives outcomes. This can help lift people’s spirits. On pg. 335 she helps ease Olanna’s worry about Baby not eating enough by providing her with dried egg yolk. On pg. 342 she tries to help Olanna learn soap making, a skill which could help her earn some money. She also looks out for children- pg. 339 “it was Mrs. Muokelu who went over and took the baby from Okromadu and placed it back in the mother’s arms. ‘Take your child,’ she said. ‘It is not his fault that there is no food today.”



Mrs. Muokelu seems to be the figure of hope for the glorious future. However on pg. 343 Olanna and Odenigbo make fun of Mrs. Muokelu.



What does making fun of Mrs. Muokelu show about Olanna’s and Odenigbo’s view of hope for a brighter future?



Olanna:




Olanna seems to go along with the idea of educating children on the values of the Biafran army. Even after the school was blown up, she continues teaching the children. On pg. 353 Olanna is worried when one of her student’s tells her that she wants to kill the vandals. “The first thing she told Odenigbo when he got home was how banal the word kill had sounded from the child’s mouth and how guilty she had felt.”



Does this quote suggest that Olanna actually does not feel that educating the children is the best way to go about spreading hope and high morale? Why does Olanna continue to teach if she feels that way?



Right after this Odenigbo tells her “She doesn’t actually kill anybody. You just taught her patriotism.” Olanna answers “I don’t know.’ But his words emboldened her, as did the pride in his face. He liked that she has spoken so forcefully, for once, about the cause; it was if she had finally become an equal partner in the war effort.”

What does Olanna’s response suggest? Does she do what she is doing for the hope of a glorious future, or because it is what Odenigbo wants?





Ugwu:




Ugwu is a young houseboy who, because of the situation he lived in, he was able to live a fairly decent and become well educated. In fact, when Mrs. Muokelu and Olanna were teaching the children after the school was bombed, he was able to teach a class as well, even though he is barely a child himself. On pg. 447 he is captured and forced to join the Biafran army.



Pg. 450: “The skinny soldiers- with no boots, no half of a yellow sun on their sleeves.”



What does the fact that the soldiers do not have the symbol of hope for a glorious future mean?



It could be said that these children were stripped of the glorious future that is promised in order to fight to their deaths for the cause that attempts to instill that sense of hope in the first place.



Is Ugwu fighting in the army willingly, or is he just trying to survive?



The Biafran Flag Symbol Analysis


The Biafran Flag Symbol Icon
The title of the novel comes from the image of the Biafran flag, which is composed of half of a yellow sun over stripes of red, black and green. In the novel Olanna teaches her students about the flag – the red symbolizes the blood of the Igbo slain in the 1966 pogrom, the black is to mourn their deaths, the green is for Biafra’s future prosperity, and the yellow sun is for the country’s “glorious future.” Adichie often points out the yellow sun on the uniforms of Biafran soldiers, and sometimes contrasts this image of hope with scenes of violence or tragedy. The flag ultimately comes to represent the optimism of the Biafrans when they first seceded from Nigeria, and then the horrors of starvation and war that came to crush that hopefulness.

Odenigbo climbed up to the podium waving his Biafran flag: swaths of red, black, and green and, at the center, a luminous half of a yellow sun.
“Biafra is born! We will lead Black Africa! We will live in security! Nobody will ever again attack us! Never again!”
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